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Nr. Area of Gap Scenario Domain Name of Gap Brief Description of Gap Related Barrier identified in WP1
E.4 Technical Interoperability Education E.4

eDelivery exists as a EU building block to facilitate secure data transaction in cross border as well as cross-domain matters; however, it has to be implemented in different sectors including education and taxation. EU-wide secure transport protocols are pre-requirement for secure data exchange that is fundamental base for OOP implementation.

E.11 Trust and Transparency Education E.11

Student as a data subject has to provide consent to host university for data sharing.

E.8 Trust and Transparency Education E.8

Transparency is an essential issue in order to accept a public service. This needs political commitments, and regulations to ensure legal interoperability as well as technical infrastructures that facilitate them.  At the end, data subject should be able to see whom, when, and why access their personal data.

E.14 Technical Interoperability Education E.14

Further development of eID to facilitate confirmation of students' educational status as well as educational data exchange, could leads to elimination of ESC and further simplification of the scenario. Then eID could be enough for identification and authentication of students as well as verification of their educational status.

E.16 Technical Interoperability Education E.16

Unique identification for subjects such as students is needed to facilitate efficient identification and authentication. While national eIDs implemented in most of the Member States, national eID Schemes are in developing phase in countries such as Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech republic, France, Greece, Italy, Poland, and Romania.

E.10 Technical Interoperability Education E.10

ESC supports the host university to check student's education status and ease student identification as well as transfer of students report. However, it is not implemented in all Member States.

E.7 Technical Interoperability Education E.7

According to eIDAS regulation (EU regulation 910-2014), cross-border recognition of national eIDs will be mandatory from September 2018. However, it was not mandatory at the time of scenario development.

E.6 Technical Interoperability Education E.6

National information systems are fundamental base for decentralised cross-border OOP implementations. Therefore, the information systems have to connect with existing modules that enable cross-border operation and data exchange (e.g. with mapping tools such as EMREX).

E.5 Technical Interoperability Education E.5

This mapping tool has to be connected as a module to the HEIs in all Member States to be used in a cross-border manner. Currently, HEIs in just six Member States have the possibility to connect.

E.1 Political Commitment Education E.1

There is already some existing political commitment at different levels supporting the OOP implementations in this scenario. However, the lack of sufficient political commitment on different levels (incl. European, national, local, or ministerial) could threat the seamless implementation of this scenario.

E.17 Semantic Interoperability Education E.17

ECTS enables student to mapping and transferring the credits that achieved in one university to other universities. However, matching the competency is challenging.

E.13 Semantic Interoperability Education E.13

Bilateral digital Learning Agreements between universities will facilitate mapping of courses and credits achieved by student in the host university to the education system of the home university. This agreement could overcome the lingual issue as well.

E.2 Semantic Interoperability Education E.2

An EU-wide multilingual code list of objects in education domain is necessary in order to facilitate effective data exchange between different countries. For instance, universities and courses would be easily identifiable by those code lists. This code list will provide a unique identification code for objects in education domain.

E.3 Semantic Interoperability Education E.3

Lack of common standard and framework for exchange of electronic educational information at Europe level can threat implementation of the scenario in this domain.

E.18 Legal Interoperability Education E.18

Some EU regulations are formulated in a way that could lead to diverse implementations among Member States. This could threat the essential harmonisation and interconnection of OOP implementations at EU-level.

E.12 Legal Interoperability Education E.12

Though there are a variety of national and European regulations to support this scenario, the absence of sufficient regulations, particularly on national level, could prevent the seamless implementation of the OOP in the education domain.

E.15 Political Commitment Education E.15

The incompatibility between the two concepts, of the freedom and flexibility of teaching in one hand, and EU-wide standardisation and harmonisation on the other hand, has been identified as a potential gap in the education domain. Consequently, an appropriate balance between them on the EU level is needed.

E.9 Data quality Education E.9

Manual approval of shared (mapped) data should be facilitated by an authorised position in each data environment. This will lead to higher trust and acceptance of the service by citizens.