The following are the existing OOP cases that were identified through the case analyis  in Deliverable 1.2:



To provide you a brief introduction to the future OOP scenario in education domain, we kindly ask you to watch the following video. Alternatively you may click through the subsequent slideshow, which contains subtitles to explain the scenario interactions. Moreover, the textual description and posters could be found under the  interactive slideshow.


Education Scenario from SCOOP4C on Vimeo.




Description of scenario:

Lisa, a student from country A wants to study for a semester at another university in country B. Lisa applies through an online subscription portal to the host university (1) using her national digital ID. Through the application portal, her name is read from the digital ID and she selects the home university and study program she is subscribed to, as well as host university and the study programme she wants to attend abroad. She also provides the consent to the host university to retrieve her relevant personal and education data from her home university's information system (IS).

The host university in country B – the responsible clerk being authenticated through her or his national eID of country B – verifies Lisa’s digital identification and sends a request to the home university IS to retrieve Lisa's relevant personal and educational data (2). After the data is gathered, a responsible administrator reviews the data to ensure that Lisa fulfills the relevant educational pre-requisites for studying modules in the intended programme at the host university. Since the data is correct and Lisa fulfills the requirements, a confirmation of the successful subscription is sent to her from the host university (3) (e.g. via email or other communication channel Lisa has indicated).

Subsequently, Lisa is able to select and subscribe online to the courses she wants to take during her study abroad and which are offered in the semester she wants to study there (4). For this, she uses her home university IS to subscribe to the relevant courses at the host university and therewith generates a digital learning agreement. To map the courses, a semantic mapping tool is used, which maps suitable learning objects and credit points across universities in Europe. When she has finished the selection of courses, she submits the digital learning agreement to the administrator of the home university's study program and the host university, who approve the digital learning agreement. Lisa receives a notification and now can be sure that the modules she will be attending will be added to her transcript of records at the home university, when she will have finished her study abroad.

Lisa travels to the host university and studies there (5). After every module is graded, the respective grades and credit points are stored in the host university's information system (filling up the transcript of records at the host university). When Lisa has attended the last exams, she returns back to her home university. When all grades are available at the host university's IS (at best before Lisa leaves), Lisa manually triggers the transmission of the digital transcript of records (using her eID) to the home university (6). In this step, again semantic mapping and necessary translation services are used to map the educational data including courses, credit points, and grades from one education system to the other. For the mapping of the courses in the transcript of records, a European-wide service is used that handles the knowledge of both national vocabularies and grading systems and that knows the translation rules for the credits and grades received in different European countries. This way, the data can be automatically stored in the home university's information system (7). An administrator at the home university is notified to approve the data and ensure the correct mapping of modules to the curriculum of Lisa. When all data is correctly mapped, the transcript of records data is added to the home university IS, so Lisa’s curriculum data is updated.

The transmission of the data between the two universities is done via a secure transport protocol. The student exchange and simplification of administrative procedures is based on the strategies for the Digital Single Market and the legal frameworks (including GDPR, eIDAS or SDGR) that provide the legal basis for the seamless OOP implementation.

Gap list Education

Nr. Area of Gap Scenario Domain Name of Gap Brief Description of Gap Related Barrier identified in WP1
E.15 Political Commitment Education E.15

The incompatibility between the two concepts, of the freedom and flexibility of teaching in one hand, and EU-wide standardisation and harmonisation on the other hand, has been identified as a potential gap in the education domain. Consequently, an appropriate balance between them on the EU level is needed.

E.1 Political Commitment Education E.1

There is already some existing political commitment at different levels supporting the OOP implementations in this scenario. However, the lack of sufficient political commitment on different levels (incl. European, national, local, or ministerial) could threat the seamless implementation of this scenario.

E.12 Legal Interoperability Education E.12

Though there are a variety of national and European regulations to support this scenario, the absence of sufficient regulations, particularly on national level, could prevent the seamless implementation of the OOP in the education domain.

E.18 Legal Interoperability Education E.18

Some EU regulations are formulated in a way that could lead to diverse implementations among Member States. This could threat the essential harmonisation and interconnection of OOP implementations at EU-level.

E.3 Semantic Interoperability Education E.3

Lack of common standard and framework for exchange of electronic educational information at Europe level can threat implementation of the scenario in this domain.

E.2 Semantic Interoperability Education E.2

An EU-wide multilingual code list of objects in education domain is necessary in order to facilitate effective data exchange between different countries. For instance, universities and courses would be easily identifiable by those code lists. This code list will provide a unique identification code for objects in education domain.

E.13 Semantic Interoperability Education E.13

Bilateral digital Learning Agreements between universities will facilitate mapping of courses and credits achieved by student in the host university to the education system of the home university. This agreement could overcome the lingual issue as well.

E.17 Semantic Interoperability Education E.17

ECTS enables student to mapping and transferring the credits that achieved in one university to other universities. However, matching the competency is challenging.

E.4 Technical Interoperability Education E.4

eDelivery exists as a EU building block to facilitate secure data transaction in cross border as well as cross-domain matters; however, it has to be implemented in different sectors including education and taxation. EU-wide secure transport protocols are pre-requirement for secure data exchange that is fundamental base for OOP implementation.

E.5 Technical Interoperability Education E.5

This mapping tool has to be connected as a module to the HEIs in all Member States to be used in a cross-border manner. Currently, HEIs in just six Member States have the possibility to connect.

E.6 Technical Interoperability Education E.6

National information systems are fundamental base for decentralised cross-border OOP implementations. Therefore, the information systems have to connect with existing modules that enable cross-border operation and data exchange (e.g. with mapping tools such as EMREX).

E.7 Technical Interoperability Education E.7

According to eIDAS regulation (EU regulation 910-2014), cross-border recognition of national eIDs will be mandatory from September 2018. However, it was not mandatory at the time of scenario development.

E.10 Technical Interoperability Education E.10

ESC supports the host university to check student's education status and ease student identification as well as transfer of students report. However, it is not implemented in all Member States.

E.16 Technical Interoperability Education E.16

Unique identification for subjects such as students is needed to facilitate efficient identification and authentication. While national eIDs implemented in most of the Member States, national eID Schemes are in developing phase in countries such as Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech republic, France, Greece, Italy, Poland, and Romania.

E.14 Technical Interoperability Education E.14

Further development of eID to facilitate confirmation of students' educational status as well as educational data exchange, could leads to elimination of ESC and further simplification of the scenario. Then eID could be enough for identification and authentication of students as well as verification of their educational status.

E.11 Trust and Transparency Education E.11

Student as a data subject has to provide consent to host university for data sharing.

E.8 Trust and Transparency Education E.8

Transparency is an essential issue in order to accept a public service. This needs political commitments, and regulations to ensure legal interoperability as well as technical infrastructures that facilitate them.  At the end, data subject should be able to see whom, when, and why access their personal data.

E.9 Data quality Education E.9

Manual approval of shared (mapped) data should be facilitated by an authorised position in each data environment. This will lead to higher trust and acceptance of the service by citizens.

Roadmap Action List (Education)

Roadmap Area Nr. Scenario Domain Gap Reference Nr. Roadmap Action Description of Action Measures Expected Results Responsible Actors Roadmap
Data quality DQA.4 Education, Social Protection, Taxation E.9, SP.8, T.11 Establish data quality assurance procedures Ensure that data is recorded and maintained properly, through the implementation of system checks, scheduling data cleansing procedures and procedures for the manual approval of automatically mapped data. Definition of data quality procedures, Enforcement of data quality procedures Enhanced quality of OOP data EU policy makers, National policy makers, Data mapping experts, Database owners and data aggregators, OOP implementers
Data quality DQA.3 Education, Social Protection, Taxation, Moving, Health Ensure quality of new data Provide training courses, video tutorials and detailed how to deal with data-to-data recorders e.g. front-desk employees. Development of multilingual vocational training for data recorders Enhanced quality of new data, i.e. every piece of data is correctly recorded from the start. National policy makers, Public officials and employees, VET practitioners
Data quality DQA.2 Taxation, Social Protection, Education T.5, SP.9, E.2, E.3 Ensure data quality in cross-border data exchange Data exchanged for cross-border services have to be based on seamless mapping service, code lists, common standards etc. to assure data quality. (compare different data requirements) Research on standards and mapping services, Adoption of EU-wide data standards Assured quality of data exchanged across borders EU policy makers, National policy makers, Experts in domain
Citizen-centred design CCA.5 Education, Moving Engage citizens into further mature OOP implementation Organize a focus groups consisting of both end users and service providers, and involve them to requirements planning phase, to alpha or beta testing phase, etc. Active citizens engagement, Awareness raising to citizens, Promotion of co-creation with citizens Promotion of co-creation with citizens; Better understanding of the implementation processes, improvement of OOP services according to the citizens' feedback, higher acceptance levels of OOP implementations, more citizen oriented inputs. OOP implementers, Citizens
Citizen-centred design CCA.4 Education, Moving Engage citizens in OOP implementation process using different incentive approaches Offering of bonus programs and discounts for other public services (e.g. temporary free parking), pilots of OOP services, "best feedback" competitions, with prizes for most active participants, in order to entice willingness to be engaged in the process. Active citizens engagement, Awareness raising to citizens Improvement of OOP services since citizens’ feedback and ideas can improve the offering, higher acceptance levels of OOP implementations, higher level of citizen engagement. Promotion of co-creation with citizens OOP implementers, Citizens, NGOs
Citizen-centred design CCA.3 Social Protection, Health, Taxation, Moving, Education Develop OOP scenarios based on collected information on needs to create citizen centred solutions Regularly perform analysis of state of play in different OOP domains in order to be able to develop relevant citizen cantered OOP scenarios. Research on citizen's needs in OOP services, Design of future OOP scenarios, Implementation of enablers Elaborated scenarios in different OOP domains and applicable for different procedures. Higher level of acceptance by citizens, citizen centric aspects is more in focus. EU implementers, National implementers, Academia
Citizen-centred design CCA.2 Education, Moving M.13, M.15 Collect the information on citizen needs for OOP implementation beforehand Implementers should consider the experience of service providers in terms of requests and complaints of the citizens, regarding existing services, to develop a concept of citizen oriented OOP solution from the beginning Research on citizen's needs in OOP services, Active citizens engagement Higher level of citizen's reliability on services. Better and inclusive OOP services, higher acceptance levels of OOP implementations. OOP implementers, Service providers
Citizen-centred design CCA.1 Education, Moving M.13, M.15 Collect the information on citizen needs for OOP implementation beforehand Initially information about the needs of the end citizens should be collected by means of direct interaction between service providers and citizens, e.g. the specific needs of citizens with disabilities to use OOP solutions will be identified correctly. Research on citizen's needs in OOP services, Active citizens engagement More comprehensive and inclusive OOP services, higher acceptance levels of OOP implementations, a feeling of excitement and ownership in the society. OOP implementers, Citizens
Interoperability Governance IGA.5 Education, Moving E.10, E.13, E.17, E.2, E.3, M.16, M.17 Policy recommendations on the use of semantic assets to improve semantic interoperability and machine readability Policy makers on EU and national levels should make a decision on the use of cross-border semantic assets to make sure all documents are at a minimum level of machine-readability (no Word Excel, PDF, …). Policy Recommendation Messages, documents and data are machine readable and semantically enriched and linked. Consequently, information systems understand content of data from different Member States EU policy makers, National policy makers
Interoperability Governance IGA.4 Education, Health, Moving, Social Protection E.1, E.15, E.17, E.18, H.13, M.5, SP.5 Improve interoperability governance by legal EU acts The improvement should be achieved through the development of legal acts and corresponding guidelines according for clear organisational, legal, semantic, and technical decisions and solutions. Implementation of regulations Accurate legal EU acts will increase sufficient competencies and finances for realising governance processes according to EIF and EIRA. EU legislators
Interoperability Governance IGA.3 Education, Social Protection, Health, Moving, Taxation E.14, E.16, SP.8, H.8, M.10, T.8, T.9 Implement all components of eIDAS The eIDAS regulation covers various components including the eID for individuals, a digital seal for organisations, issuance of certificates, security tokens, digital signatures, timestamping, validation of certificates, and trust service list. However, s Implementation of regulations National implementers are responsible to make sure that all components of the eIDAS regulation are achieved. This will improve security and facilitate the cross-border authentication of individuals and the validation of communications and data exchange. National implementers
Interoperability Governance IGA.2 Education, Moving, Social Protection, Health, Taxation E.4, E.11, M.4, SP.13, H.7, H.8, T.2, T.3 Establish an eDelivery building block in specified domains in all Member States Seamless implementation of the eDelivery node at the identified domains on the national level according to the evaluated deficiency. Implementation of regulations Implementation of the eDelivery building blocks in all Member States will ease the implementation and execution of the cross-border OOP services. National implementers
Interoperability Governance IGA.1 Education, Moving, Social Protection, Health, Taxation E.4, E.11, M.4, SP.13, H.7, H.8, T.2, T.3 Investigate domains with lack of sufficient eDelivery nodes in all Member States An eDelivery node should be in place in each domain and all Member States in order to facilitate cross-border and cross-domain electronic data and document exchange. This action aims to investigate and point out any area where the eDelivery node is missin Research on successful diffusion of enablers Academia and EU policy makers should come together to investigate and specify all policy domains in the Member States, where the eDelivery is needed. The results will benefit to the implementation and interaction between Member States. Academia, EU policy makers
Data protection and privacy DPA.5 Education, Moving, Health, Social Protection, Taxation Harmonized implementation of GDPR GDPR is already in place, but rules are not harmonised and there is no clear understanding what has to be implemented in terms of data protection. Implementation of regulations Clear rules on data protection in the EU and all member states. EU policy makers, National policy makers
Data protection and privacy DPA.4 Education, Health, Taxation, Social Protection, Moving Control of the use of data by an independent institution An independent agency, like EU data protection officer should overlook the use of data for cross-border digital public services in order to avoid misuse of data Implementation of regulations More trust and transparency, control over the misuse of data EU policy makers, National policy makers
Data protection and privacy DPA.3 Health, Education, Taxation, Moving, Social Protection H.4 Right to withdraw consent for data sharing any time Citizens should have right to withdraw their consent for data sharing any time easily and transparently if they feel a misuse of data. This also means they need to have a transparent overview of the use of their data and to whom at which time they have gi Policy Recommendation, Implementation of regulations More control and transparency of the use of data for citizens. Consequently, more trust of citizens in the state and the use of data. EU policy makers, National policy makers, Service providers
Data protection and privacy DPA.2 Education, Social Protection, Health, Taxation, Moving Implement mandatory technical modules for citizens’ consent for data sharing Service providers should implement mandatory technical modules for any OOP service so that citizens can give or withdraw their consent for any OOP service according to Policy maker laws Implementation of enablers During the application for a cross-border service, citizens can choose if their data should be automatically exchanged between different member states or not EU policy makers, National policy makers, Service providers
Data protection and privacy DPA.1 Education, Social Protection, Taxation, Moving, Health Agree on and implement common data protection standards Making agreement on and implementation of the common data protection standards for cross-border data exchange Implementation of regulations, Agree on common technical solutions Data protection standards paves the way for coherent cross-border data exchange EU implementers, National implementers, EU policy makers, EU policy makers, Service providers
Motivators MA.6 Education, Health, Moving, Social Protection E.11, H.5, H.14, M.12, SP.2 Implement a comprehensive solution for sharing consent once Develop a comprehensive solution for requesting subject's data sharing consent in order to avoid redundancy in iterative steps of sharing consent. i.e. subject can share her/his consent once for different OOP services Implementation of enablers Increased motivation of citizens to use more accessible and unsophisticated services EU implementers, National implementers
Motivators MA.5 Social Protection, Health, Taxation, Moving, Education Develop a standardized business process in cross-border OOP services with equivalent purposes/functionalities EU-wide. Implementation of standard business processes to guarantee intuitiveness and user friendliness in OOP in equivalent/adjacent services offered cross-border, so that both service providers and end users could intuitively understand the purposes and logic of Design processes User-friendliness and acquaintance of solution, which leads to higher citizens' motivation to use the service. EU implementers, National implementers